Author: Athena Kramer

Types of Thermal Insulation


Thermal insulation keeps heat in and cold out – it’s the material in your insulated coffee cup or fire-resistant clothing. It is also the stuff in your house’s attic, and it helps make homes energy efficient.

The key characteristics of thermal Insulation Perth are Vapour Permeability and Thermal Resistance. Other factors to consider are Compression Resistance and Fire Retardancy.

Loose Fill

Loose fill insulation is an easy-to-install thermal insulation product that comes in a variety of densities. It can be blown into enclosed cavities such as wall spaces, or unenclosed areas such as attics. It is made from a combination of recycled paper, newspaper, or cardboard and cellulose fibers. It is typically manufactured locally, which makes it a cost-effective choice for DOE funded low income weatherization projects. It also does a good job of slowing air movement and is a good fire retardant. It poses less of an inhalation hazard than fiberglass, and it doesn’t contain any volatile organic compounds.

Some loose-fill insulations have been known to irritate the skin and respiratory system. It is also worth noting that cellulose can smolder under certain conditions, so it should not be installed in wall cores around recessed lights and electrical boxes, as well as near furnace and wood stove chimneys. It is important to note that the insulator should provide details about the R-value of their product at its settled density. This information is often included in the UL listing for the insulation and should be available from the manufacturer.

The best loose-fill cellulose insulation is borate stabilized, which helps to reduce the risk of health problems. It can be used in walls that were insulated with fiberglass batts, although it is often recommended to remove them first. Skilled cellulose professionals can snake a fill tube into an existing fiberglass cavity, crushing the batts and achieving a full uniform application of new cellulose insulation.

It is possible to use loose-fill cellulose in concrete block walls, and it has been shown to improve 2 hour fire ratings to four hours. This type of insulation is often specified for concrete wall retrofits in the state of Massachusetts.

Another type of loose-fill masonry insulation is perlite. It is an inorganic mineral that is essentially as permanent as the walls it insulates, and it is also cost-effective. It is lightweight, pours easily and quickly, and doesn’t require special equipment or skills to install.

It is important to note that any type of loose-fill insulation may contain asbestos, and it is therefore necessary to have an asbestos survey conducted before proceeding with installation. If asbestos is found, it should be professionally removed before insulating the home. It is important to understand that asbestos cannot be detected by any non-invasive test, and only an asbestos survey can accurately determine whether or not asbestos has been used in a home. It is advisable to hire an experienced asbestos surveyor who can safely locate and remove all potential sources of asbestos.

Mineral Fibre

Mineral fibre is a broad term that covers several types of insulation, including rock wool and slag wool. It is created by melting naturally-occurring minerals such as stone, basalt, or iron ore slag in a high-temperature furnace. The result is a wool-like material that is very flexible and has good thermal and acoustic properties. It can be used in both metal and wood frame construction. It is water-repellent, but vapor-permeable, and therefore can be used in outdoor applications as long as it is protected with a metal jacket.

Because it is made from recycled materials, slag wool has an excellent environmental footprint. It is typically sourced from industrial waste, and it is often blended with steel or iron oxide to reduce the embodied energy of production. The slag is also melted in a single melt process, which makes it more efficient than other mineral wool products that are blown into place through a nozzle.

Another type of mineral fiber is glass wool, which is produced by heating borosilicate glass at high temperatures and then drawing it through rotating nozzles. This creates a fine, spun-like fiber that has similar characteristics to rock wool, but it is more durable and offers excellent fire resistance. This product is available in a variety of mats, boards, and blankets.

Cellulose insulation is another form of mineral fiber that is commonly used in residential and commercial buildings. It is made from recycled paper, primarily newsprint and has a high recycled content (typically 82% to 85%). It is treated with the chemical borate to make it resistant to pests and fire.

Other forms of mineral fiber include cotton and linen. These products are lightweight, but still provide excellent acoustic and thermal performance. They are also naturally insect and rodent-resistant.

In addition to their use in building and construction, these textiles have been incorporated into clothing, gear, sportswear and other products. In the future, it is likely that more athleisure brands will incorporate these fibres to add warmth without adding bulk or to help regulate body temperature and reduce sweating.

Plant/Animal Derived

In the context of global climate change and high energy consumption, the development of new materials with lower embodied energies is an urgent matter. Reusing industrial and agricultural by-products is a crucial solution to reduce energy usage. The use of natural, renewable materials in building construction is one such way to do so. This is especially true for the insulating materials in buildings.

In this regard, there is a range of possibilities:

Plant-derived thermal insulation has been used for years, and it has proven to be a successful insulator. It is also highly sustainable, and it can be made from a number of plant and animal sources. These include cellulose fibre, sheep wool, cotton and flax. These products are made from natural raw materials with low embodied energy, and can be fabricated into batts or compressed board. They can also be recycled and reused at the end of their service life.

Several research projects have also led to the production of innovative natural insulating materials. For example, a carding-folding process has been used to produce composite products that combine natural fibres of animal origin with PET and recycled polyester (rPET/rPES). The resulting thermal insulation products have good hygrothermal properties, and they can be combined with other building components in order to achieve optimum performance.

There are also a number of other plant and animal-based insulating materials that can be used to provide thermal insulation. These include cellulose fibre derived from wheat straw, barley straw and rye, hemp, cotton and flax. In addition, there are a variety of animal-derived insulating materials including goose or duck feathers (preferably from animals that have been raised humanely rather than slaughtered), milkweed seed pod fibres and kapok fibres (from the seeds of tropical trees).

These insulation materials have a positive impact on the quality of the indoor air in terms of moisture regulation. They are also a source of natural fibres, which are not harmful to humans and do not release irritating substances when they decompose. Moreover, these insulation materials have a high resistance to biological attack by worms and insects. This is important because it means that they can be safely used in living environments without any concerns regarding pest infestations.

Cellular Plastic

In contrast to loose fill and mineral fibre insulation, cellular plastic insulation has a dense internal structure. This is due to a process of cellular foaming. The base material is a solid thermoplastic resin such as polyurethane, polystyrene, phenolic or polyvinyl chloride. A blowing agent is absorbed or dissolved within the solid material, and then subjected to high temperatures. This causes the dissolved gas molecules to diffuse and nucleate, creating a cellular foam. The average cellular size of the resultant material depends upon the type of base plastic, the type of foaming system and the conditions under which the foaming takes place.

Cellular plastic insulations are available in a wide range of sizes, densities and colour options. They are produced as slabs, blocks, sheets, films, molded shapes and sprayed coatings. They offer a wide variety of physical, mechanical and electrical insulating properties which depend on the density, cellular size, and other characteristics.

Typically, these materials are oil-derived and come in the form of rigid polyurethane, phenolic or extruded polystyrene sheeting and spray foam. This means they are long lasting, do not require protection from moisture or vermin infestation and can be easily installed. The product is also non-toxic and non-combustible.

The thermal efficiency of a cellular plastic insulator is determined by the average heat conductivity (k value) of the individual cells. As the insulator ages, its k value degrades. This may be due to replacement of the cellular material with different gases or moisture, changes in the cell size, penetration of water or air, degradation of the solid face by ultraviolet light and atmospheric oxygen, and a combination of these effects.

These aging effects will increase the thermal conductivity of the insulator, decreasing its effective k value and making it less effective. For this reason, it is important to select a product with an extended service life and a good warranty.

Tips About Lawn Care

Caring for a lawn can be a daunting task for new homeowners. But with some time and effort, anyone can achieve a healthy green lawn.

A few important tips to get started include watering deeply (a weekly soaking is better than frequent shallow waterings), overseeding to thicken thin lawns, and mowing high enough to prevent weed invasion. Seeking the help of Lawn Care Harrisburg PA professionals makes everything easier.

lawn care


Grass is an important part of any landscape, but many homeowners don’t know how to properly mow their yard. One of the biggest mistakes that people make is cutting their lawns too short. While most of us like a nice, green lawn, mowing too short can stress the grass. This can lead to yellowing and other lawn issues.

It’s also important to change your mowing pattern often. This will prevent your lawn from becoming rutted by tire tracks, and it will encourage a more dense turf. It’s recommended to change the direction that you mow every two or three cuts. This will help reduce soil compaction, control creeping grass runners, and lessen thatch development.

Another tip is to always be on the lookout for weeds and other lawn problems. If you see a problem, address it right away. Otherwise, it can become a much bigger issue later on. For instance, if you notice that your lawn has a lot of dead spots, contact your local lawn care company right away.

The last tip is to mow when the conditions are right. Sticking to a set schedule can damage your lawn, as the grass may not be ready for a cut at the time you are mowing. Instead, watch the grass for signs that it needs to be mowed and then adjust your schedule accordingly.

It’s also important to bag or sweep up your clippings. This will help keep them from washing into storm drains, where they can cause clogs and eventually end up in rivers and lakes to contribute to phosphorus pollution. It’s best to do this as you are mowing, but you can also do it afterward with a leaf blower or broom. It’s also a good idea to wear safety equipment when mowing, such as gloves and sunglasses, to protect yourself from flying debris. This will also help you stay more focused on the task at hand and avoid any accidents. Lastly, it’s recommended to use a sharp blade and to always check that the mower is working correctly before using it.


A lawn that’s properly watered promotes healthy grass and reduces the occurrence of pests and diseases. But knowing how often and how long to water your lawn can be tricky. Overwatering weakens the turf, increasing the risk of disease and insect infestation. Overwatering also encourages stormwater runoff and can increase your water bills.

The best time to water a lawn is early in the day. Watering at this cool time of day minimizes the loss of water to evapotranspiration and maximizes the amount of moisture that reaches the roots. Watering in the evening, on the other hand, can promote lawn diseases. The wet conditions created by nighttime watering are inviting to fungal diseases like brown patches and dollar spots.

During periods of extreme drought, follow any city or county water restrictions and use only the amount of water needed to keep your yard alive. This will prevent damage to the lawn and reduce your reliance on local water supplies.

When it comes to watering, there are many different methods and approaches. The common wisdom is that a lawn needs about an inch of water a week. One method is to set up a plastic pie pan or tuna fish can in the yard and watch how long it takes for the soil to fill half an inch of water. Another method is to simply set a sprinkler on your lawn and let it run for about 20 minutes three times per week.

If you don’t have a moisture meter, you can test for soil moisture by pushing a screwdriver into the ground. If the soil feels easy to push into, it has sufficient moisture. If the soil is hard to push into, it requires more water.

When aerating your lawn, water it well the day before or wait for a rain shower. The soil must be moist for aerators to penetrate and loosen thatch. Avoid overwatering, which can lead to root rot and fungal diseases.


The grass is greener on the other side, and it can be tempting to envy the lush lawns that your neighbors have. However, you can have a beautiful lawn that is a source of pride for your property as well with proper maintenance and care. To do this, you should fertilize your lawn with the correct type of products and at the right time.

There are a variety of lawn fertilizers available at your local hardware store, including organic and inorganic products. Organic fertilizers are derived from plant or animal sources and are less likely to burn your lawn. Inorganic fertilizers are made from synthetic chemicals and typically have a higher concentration of nutrients.

When it comes to selecting the correct type of fertilizer for your lawn, you should base your decision on the results of a soil test. These tests can determine the levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (N-P-K) in your soil, which are essential to the growth and health of your lawn. You can purchase an at-home soil test kit, but sending a sample to a lab will give you the most accurate results.

Choosing the right fertilizer is one thing, but how you apply it is just as important. Lawn experts usually recommend using a drop spreader or backpack sprayer to ensure even distribution. They also suggest watering the lawn after fertilizing to allow the grass to absorb the nutrients and prevent scorching. Finally, they recommend avoiding fertilizing your lawn right before it rains, as the rain will wash away any excess fertilizer.

It’s important to remember that the health of your lawn requires regular checkups and care. Watching for weeds and disease can help you spot problems early, and a regular program of seeding or overseeding can fill in thin or bare areas. The most important thing is to be consistent with your care, and you’ll soon have a healthy lawn that will rival your neighbors’.


Weeds are a lawn’s worst enemy. They steal nutrients from grass, crowd out desirable plants, and can even attract parasites and lawn-damaging insects. The good news is that with the right strategies, you can banish weeds from your yard and keep them from returning year after year.

If you catch weeds in their earliest stages, when they are still young and have small roots, you can simply pull them out by hand. This is an effective approach if you have a relatively small amount of weeds to deal with and can be especially useful if you are worried about contaminating the soil with man-made chemicals.

However, if you have a large amount of weeds to deal with or you missed the window during spring when you could use pre-emergent herbicide, it may be necessary to resort to chemical control. In these cases, it’s important to choose the best product for your needs and apply it correctly. Read the instructions on the label carefully and apply it only when rain is not expected for 24 to 48 hours, as rain can wash the chemicals off of the grass before they have a chance to work.

You should also avoid applying weed killer in the wind, as the spray may drift and damage the grass on your property. It’s also a good idea to avoid applying weed killer during drought conditions, as this can cause the same problems as water stress.

Weeds thrive in compacted or nutrient-deprived soil and in grass that is overwatered or cut too short. Taking steps to improve the health of your lawn and reduce weeds is crucial for achieving the lush green landscape that most homeowners dream about.

With the proper strategy, you can transform your weed-ridden yard into a beautiful, healthy, green sward of turfgrass that is the envy of the neighborhood. Start by identifying the underlying issues in your yard that are allowing weeds to take over, then follow the tips above to create an efficient, effective weed control program. Over time, you will enjoy the kind of green yard that most people only dream about.